Ari Abramovich Sternfeld was one of the pioneers of cosmonautics, a theoretical scientist in the field of space flight mechanics and an inventor. He graduated from the University of Nancy (France) in 1927, gave lectures on cosmonautics at the French Academy of Sciences in 1934. He moved to the USSR and took Soviet citizenship in 1935. Ari Abramovich Sternfeld was an employee of the Jet Research Institute during 1935-1939 and worked together with S.P. Korolev, V.P. Glushko, M.K. Tikhonravov, Y.A. Pobedonostsev, G.E. Langemak, etc. Ari Abramovich Sternfeld was the author of the main works «Introduction to Cosmonautics» (1934, 1937), which outlines the scientific and physical foundations of space flight, «Artificial Earth Satellites» (1956, published 25 times in 1957-1958 in 18 foreign countries) and «From Artificial satellites to interplanetary flights» (1957). Also, he published numerous scientific and popular science books and articles. Ari Abramovich Sternfeld calculated and justified the trajectories of space flights, determined the energetically optimal («Sternfeld trajectories»), introduced the terms «cosmonautics» and «cosmodrome», the concept of cosmic velocities and calculated their starting values, formulated the problem of the existence of «seasons of space navigation». He was Honored Worker of Science and Technology of the RSFSR (1965).
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