Sergey Pavlovich Korolev was an outstanding Soviet designer and scientist, academician of the USSR Academy of Sciences, founder of cosmonautics and the largest specialist in the field of space shipbuilding, the twice Hero of Socialist Labor. He studied at a professional construction school, and then entered the Kiev Polytechnic Institute in 1924, where he began to study aircraft engineering. Korolev moved to Moscow, transferring to the Bauman Moscow State Technical University in 1926. He successfully designed various aircraft, but after meeting and talking with K.E. Tsiolkovsky was actively engaged in the study of jet propulsion and the development of rocket aircraft. The successful launch of the first rocket took place in 1933. In 1938 on Stalin’s instructions, Korolev was arrested and sent first to Kolyma, and then, after a review of the case, to a Moscow prison. A few years later he was released. Sergey Pavlovich Korolev created a rocket that had a nuclear warhead in 1954, and then the first rocket with a satellite was launched in 1957. This made it possible two years later to send three spacecraft to the surface of the Moon, to carry out the first human flight into space (1961) and access to open space (1965). The talent of an outstanding scientist and organizer allowed him for many years to direct the work of many research institutes and design bureaus to solve large complex problems. Korolev’s scientific and technical ideas have found wide application in rocket and space technology. There were created under his leadership a lot of important objects: the first space complex, many ballistic and geophysical rockets, the world’s first intercontinental ballistic missile, the «Vostok» launch vehicle and its modifications, an artificial Earth satellite were launched. The flights of the «Vostok» and «Voskhod» spacecraft were carried out by him, on which for the first time in history a human spaceflight and a human exit into space were carried out a space. Under scientific supervision of Sergey Pavlovich Korolev the first spacecraft of the «Luna», «Venera», «Mars», «Zond» series, «Electron», «Molniya-1» series and some spacecraft of the «Cosmos» series were created; also the «Soyuz» spacecraft project was developed. Without limiting his activities to the creation of the RN and spacecraft, Korolev, as the chief designer, carried out general technical management of the work on the first space programs and initiated the development of a number of applied scientific areas that ensure further progress in the creation of the RN and spacecraft. Korolev brought up numerous cadres of scientists and engineers. Sergey Pavlovich Korolev was the generator of many extraordinary ideas and the progenitor of outstanding design teams working in the field of rocket and space technology, his contribution to the development of domestic and world manned cosmonautics is decisive. He is a pioneer of many major areas of development of domestic missile weapons and rocket and space technology. He was awarded the K.E. Tsiolkovsky Gold Medal of the USSR Academy of Sciences (1958), the Lenin Prize (1957), two Orders of Lenin, the Order of the Badge of Honor and medals. The USSR Academy of Sciences established the Sergey Pavlovich Korolev Gold Medal «For Outstanding Achievements in the field of rocket and space technology» in 1966. Sergey Pavlovich Korolev’s scholarships have been established for students of higher educational institutions.
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