Nikolay Nikolaevich
Yelansky

1894-1964


Nikolay Nikolaevich Yelansky was one of the founders of the national school of military field surgery, Lieutenant General of the medical service, the organizer and head of the Department of Faculty Surgery of Leningrad Pediatric Medical Institute (1934-1939). Nikolay Nikolaevich Yelansky was born in 1894 in Novokhopersk (now it is the Voronezh region). He finished the Gymnasium in Borisoglebsk with a gold medal in 1913. Few years later he graduated from Military Medical Academy, received the title of doctor with honors and was sent to the active army as a regimental doctor. From 1918 to 1921 he worked as a district doctor in a rural hospital in the Voronezh region. In 1921 he returned to Military Medical Academy as a doctor of the S.P. Fedorov clinic and in 1924 defended his doctoral dissertation on the topic “About the relationship between ulcers and stomach cancer”. In 1932, Nikolai Nikolaevich received the title of professor. In 1934, he was elected to the post of the head of the newly created Department of Faculty Surgery of the LPMI. Since 1937, he combined work at the Department of Faculty Surgery with the leadership of the Department of General Surgery of Military Medical Academy. Since this period, Nikolai Nikolaevich was continuously engaged in the problems of military field surgery. Extraordinary ability to work, good organizational skills deservedly put him among the leading surgeons of our country. From the first days of the Great Patriotic War, N.N. Yelansky was in the active army, he was the chief surgeon of the Northwestern, 2nd Baltic, 2nd Ukrainian and Trans-Baikal fronts. During the war, he proved himself as a talented organizer of medical support for troops, established a blood transfusion service, also treated open infected bone fractures, offered a perforated pin for intraosseous fixation of fragments and improved the technique of applying various sutures. In a number of his works on military field surgery, Nikolai Yelansky justified the need for specialized treatment, thereby generalizing the experience of army and front-line military field institutions, where under his leadership it was carried out for injuries of the skull, chest, abdomen, joints and long tubular bones. After the war was over, N.N. Yelansky returned to Military Medical Academy, where he worked until 1947 as the head of the Department of General Surgery. In 1947, he was appointed to the post of chief surgeon of the Soviet Army. At the same time, he headed the Department of Faculty Surgery of the 1st Moscow Medical Institute. In 1926, his monograph “Blood Transfusion” was published, in which the basic guidelines for determining blood groups are given, transfusion techniques are described, indications and contraindications to blood transfusion are formulated. Nikolay Nikolaevich owns a number of original works on various issues of urology. He developed indications for surgical and non-surgical removal of ureteral stones, proposed a method for treating the wounded with fractures of the pelvic bones and wounds of the genitourinary system. This technique has been successfully used in military field conditions. N.N. Yelansky paid much attention to the surgical treatment of diseases of the liver and bile ducts. In his work “When not to operate for jaundice”, he deeply analyzed the causes of failures in the surgical treatment of mechanical jaundice. Particular attention of doctors was drawn to the need for thorough preoperative differential diagnosis of jaundice. Nikolay Nikolaevich was a member of the editorial board of the journals “Surgery” and “Military Medical Journal”. Under his editorship, the 15th and 16th volumes of the multi-volume work “The experience of Soviet medicine in the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945” were published. N.N. Yelansky’s textbook “Military field Surgery” was reprinted 5 times, it was translated into foreign languages and awarded the Stalin Prize in 1952. Under the guidance of Professor Yelansky, 4 doctors of medical sciences and 9 candidates of medical sciences were trained. He was awarded fifteen orders and medals of the Soviet Union, awarded the titles of the Honored Scientist of the RSFSR (1942), the Hero of Socialist Labor (1964).

Address: Moscow, Elanskogo str., 2, p. 1